Liver & Kidney


The liver’s function is vital in the absorption of nutrients and the breakdown of toxic substances as well as hormone level maintenance and much more.The hepatic function panel test, is a blood test that measures the blood levels of total proteins, bilirubin, albumin, and liver enzymes. High or low levels may be signs of liver disease or damage. Testing is advised when one experiences symptoms of liver disease like fever, pain in the abdominal area, vomiting, yellowing of the skin, eyes or bodily fluids, dark yellow urine, and feelings of tiredness. Also if one is exposed to hepatitis virus or medication that may cause liver damage. A liver test is advised for heavy drinkers, or people with high blood pressure or diabetes.

Sample requirement

A blood sample is required to perform a liver function panel test. It is a simple process with only a momentary slight pain from the needle stick.

Method of test used

The blood test will show levels of:

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
    Total protein
    Gamma- glutamyl transferase (GGT)
    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    Prothrombin time (PT)

Result parameters

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 7 to 55 units per liter (U/L)

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 8 to 48 U/L

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 45 to 115 U/L

Bilirubin: 0.1 to 1.0 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL)

Albumin: 3.5 to 5.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL)

Total protein: 6.3 to 7.9 g/dL

Gamma- glutamyl transferase (GGT): 9 to 48 U/L

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 122 to 222 U/L

Prothrombin time (PT): 9.5 to 13.8 seconds



A complete blood count test provides information on the types and numbers of cells in the body which help in the diagnosis of diseases like anemia, polycythemia, leukemia and infections. Shed light to the cause of symptoms like fatigue, weakness or bruising. Show how the body is dealing with radiation treatments or drugs and the cause and effects of abnormal bleeding as well as necessary information before surgery.

Sample requirement

A blood sample is required to perform the complete blood count test. It is a simple process with only a momentary slight pain from the needle stick.

Method of test used

At Stephanos Pavlides Laboratory we test the sample blood for:

    White Blood Cell Count (WBC, leukocyte)
    White Blood Cell Types (WBC differential)
    Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
    Hematocrit (HCT, packed volume, PCV)
    Hemoglobin (Hgb)
    Red Blood Cell Indices
    Platelet Count (thrombocyte)
    Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

Results parameters

White Blood Cell Count (WBC, leukocyte): 5,000–10,000 WBCs per cubic millimeter (mm3) or 5.0–10.0 x 109 WBCs per liter (L)

White Blood Cell Types (WBC differential)

Neutrophils: 50-62%

Band neutrophils: 3-6%

Lymphocytes: 25-40%

Monocytes: 3-7%

Eosinophils: 0-3%

Basophils: 0-1%

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)

Men: 4.5–5.5 million RBCs per microliter (mcL) or 4.5–5.5 x 1012/liter (L)

Women: 4.0–5.0 million RBCs per mcL or 4.0–5.0 x 1012/L

Children: 3.8–6.0 million RBCs per mcL or 3.8–6.0 x 1012/L

Newborn: 4.1–6.1 million RBCs per mcL or 4.1–6.1 x 1012/L

Hematocrit (HCT)

Men: 42%–52% or 0.42–0.52 volume fraction

Women: 36%–48% or 0.36–0.48 volume fraction

Children: 29%–59% or 0.29–0.59 volume fraction

Newborns: 44%–64% or 0.44–0.64 volume fraction

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

Men: 14–17.4 grams per deciliter (g/dL) or 140–174 grams per liter (g/L)

Women: 12–16 g/dL or 120–160 g/L

Children: 9.5–20.5 g/dL or 95–205 g/L

Newborns: 14.5–24.5 g/dL or 145–245 g/L

Red Blood Cell Indices

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV): 84-96 femtoliters (fL)

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH): 28-34 picograms (pg) per cell

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): 32–36 grams per deciliter (g/dL)

Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW): 11.5- 14.5%

Platelet (thrombocyte) count:

Adults:140,000–400,000 platelets per mm3 or 140–400 x 109/L

Children: 150,000–450,000 platelets per mm 3 or 150–450 x 109/L

Mean Platelet Volume (MPV): 7.4–10.4 mcm3 or 7.4–10.4 fL

Blood Smear: Normal blood cells in size, shape, colour and number.